About

The history of Banjar Kingdom at southern Kalimantan (Borneo) was marked by a remarkable achievement of social, cultural and economic development mingle with intricate of political affairs, including dramatic usurpation of Dutch colonial in dynasty succession until the conflict reached the culmination when the Dutch colonial imposed monopolistic treaty over pepper trading in 1847. Banjarese rose against Dutch in the Banjarmasin War of 1859-1863, and then allied themselves with the Dayaknese (Surapati) in later years. The last arm resistance ended in 1906, the war that longer than Aceh War (1873-1912). Unfortunately, the glory of Banjar kingdom that based on Islamic values finally fade and disappear in political map, except the spirit to revive the golden age that wired in a deep psyche of Banjarese. [1.2]
Banjar Kingdom participated in global economy for the better part of two millennia, and it was an amazing phenomenon that the dominant player was not the big plantation but marginal and small scale farmers of pepper and rubber in remote areas. In short, their performance developed from local to global.[3]
Initially Banjar Kingdom focus on an abundance of natural products, and coupled with navigable waterway for bringing them out to the cost, those two factors played critical role of development of Banjar Kingdom. We could imagine how big the volume of trade where Banjar Kingdom engaged in a large trading community in which foreign traders came in great numbers, as Acehnese, Balinese, Bugisnese, Biaju, Chinese, Johornese. Hollanders, Javanese, Madurase, Makassarese, Malaccans, Malay, Minangkabau, Patanis, Sumbawanese, and those from Bantan, Jambi, Gujerat, Keling, Macao, Palembang, and Tuban. [4]
Banjar’s pepper drew many traders to it, and the location of kingdom was prone to the threat from outside. That is why, two years before four ships of Hollanders anchored at the south of Pulau Kambang and bombarded the town of Banjar, Marhum Panambahan, in his speech to the court, recommended the relocation of capital: “I propose that we move the capital to somewhere on Mangapan river . . .for it is like a banana tree in front of one’s gate, too many people take an interest in it. Since this place lies near the sea it is an easy prey for an enemy. We had better move elsewhere.” [5]
The cultivation of “the banana tree at the gate” that described in Hikayat Banjar, read as a metaphor for pepper cultivation and depicted an image how rich Kalimantan’s resources, but it was vulnerable resources.
There are three points of great lesson from the past history that Banjar Kingdom was healthy and prosperous, while Banjarese was eager to live together in a diversity community, including race, ethnic, religion, and culture. In conjunction with economic development and how to in increase value added, enterpreneurship was the “ blood” of Banjarese .
So, when we learn from history it does not mean that we want to replicate the whole affairs of the past, but by engaging in a wise and deep retrospection we try to make a right decision of the best option.
We are aware that the Kalimantan’s natural resources are becoming more diminish so in facing the problem of regional development the best option is focus on unlimited human capital development. Sport, physical education, and recreation is also a critical instrument of human capital development. So, like a metaphor, if the alien creators come to seized Kalimantan , they do not find again an abundance of resources, except intangible wealth, a high capacity of intelligence that lies in the brain within the scull.
Scholars of sport and physical education reveal the real values of sport, physical education, and recreation, such as social value (e.g connecting people and social inclusion), supporting education (e.g boosting highly cognitive skill, academic achievement), improving health and well-being and preventing risk behaviour, including reducing health cost. Currently researches on economic values of sport are becoming more increase and reveal the sport’s economic impact that reaches further than most people would expect. [6]
Most of researches on the impact of sport and physical education have been published in recognized international journal, but the authors are scholars from foreign countries. Our researches and publications still lag behind, so it seems necessary to carry out an international conference as a strategic occasion to drive and generate young scholars’ motivation to engage in research and publish their scientific finding from Indonesia context.